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Applying Ho Chi Minh’s thoughts to present cadre training and fostering

(PTOJ) - The process of Doi Moi (Renewal), accelerating industrialization and modernization as well as international integration have required qualified, capable and reputable cadres on a par with their duties. On the basis of Ho Chi Minh's viewpoint on cadre training, the author of the article clarifies the current situation in this field and proposes some solutions to apply Ho Chi Minh's thoughts to raising the quality and effectiveness of training and fostering to meet the requirements of tasks in the new period.

Ho Chi Minh affirmed that the work serves as the core in the process of building a team of cadres - Photo: VNA

1. Ho Chi Minh’s viewpoints on cadre training and fostering

Ho Chi Minh more than once said: “Cadres are like the chain in the whole machine. If the chain is not good or smooth and even the engine is still working well, the whole machine will be paralyzed. It is cadres who disseminate the policies of the Government and other organizations in the public. If they are bad, even good policies cannot be implemented”(1). Therefore, in order to bring about a final victory, the revolutionary course is in need a force of revolutionary cadres equipped with steadfast stands and viewpoints, and a thorough grasp of theory, good expertise, talents and virtues, “both passion and professionalism”. “Agencies must pay special attention to cadre training”, he recommended(2).

Regarding the importance of cadre training and fostering, Ho Chi Minh affirmed that the work serves as the core in the process of building a team of cadres. He said: “Training cadres is the Party’s core task”(3). If the work goes well, we will build a strong force of cadres who do a good job in “explaining the policies of the Party and the Government to the people for their understanding and implementation, and reporting their situation to the Party and the Government so that they can understand clearly and issue the right policies”(4).

Regarding the purpose of cadre training and fostering, Ho Chi Minh clearly pointed out: “Learn to work, live morally, work as a civil servant. Learn to serve unions, classes and the people, the fatherland and mankind”(5). Accordingly, one should “learn to correct his thoughts, cultivate his revolutionary morality, trust, and practice”(6). Having determined the right motivation and goals, his learning will meet the training and fostering requirements.

“Studying theory is supposed to facilitate application, neither for merely theoretical purpose nor later negotiation with the Party. All improper learning motives must be eliminated”(7), Ho Chi Minh added.

The purpose, the object, the content and the method must be clearly defined before cadre training and fostering. Ho Chi Minh clearly pointed out: “Be practical and thoughtful in training” or “know who to train, who trains, what to train, and how to train”(8). His great ideas have been guiding the entire cadre training and fostering.

He said that the object decides the content and method of training and fostering. Therefore, “who to train” must be clearly defined, helping design appropriate training and fostering contents and methods.

The training and fostering contents must be practical as teaching and learning Marxist - Leninist theory must be associated with reality and theoretical application, and avoid cramming empty theories. Professional training “must follow the slogan: learn what you are going to do”(9). Apart from training theory and expertise, it is highly necessary to foster and practise working skills.

In terms of training and fostering methods, Ho Chi Minh - as an expert in organizing and directly training generations of cadres - firmly grasped and smoothly applied the Marxist - Leninist law of thinking and methodology to cadre training and fostering. He proposed the system of principles, mottos and methods of training and fostering cadres as follows:

“Training must centre on changing thoughts”(10). Training and fostering cadres must associate learning with training in political courage, revolutionary ethics, working styles and methods.

“Training should focus on practicality and detail, rather than spreading”(11). Like in other fields, although quantity is required, quality, cost saving, and practical value must be ensured first and foremost. Essentially, cadre training and fostering is tasked with helping learners understand issues thoroughly and know how to apply them to their job. After being trained and fostered, they must work more efficiently with greater enthusiasm and a higher sense of responsibility.

Associating study with practice as a key principle, “theory must attach to practical work”(12). Teaching and learning theory as well as work experience must be related specific situations to solve practical problems.

“Training must be aimed at desired needs”(13), cadre training and fostering must meet the requirements of planning and use. He said: “Trainers are like producers whose goods must meet the needs of consumers”(14).

In training and fostering cadres, President Ho Chi Minh attached great importance to improving and guiding self-study. He advised: “Regard self-study as the core supported by discussions and instructions”(15). Trainer should promote learners’ independence and creativity, avoiding passive learning. He also pointed out: “Learn at school, learn from books, learn from each other and learn from the people”(16).

Cadre training and fostering must focus on quality, which drew special attention from President Ho Chi Minh. He pointed out that in cadre training and fostering, it is a common mistake that expansion draws more attention than detail, reducing the desired quality.

Besides, Ho Chi Minh attached great importance to building a force of trainers in charge of the work and promoting the leaders’ role. He said: “Staff in charge of the training must be selected very carefully and leaders must be involved in training”(17). Therefore, those in charge of cadre training and fostering “must be a model of ideology, morals, and working style”(18), constantly cultivate their knowledge, and “never stop learning in order to fulfil their training task”(19).

2. Current situation of cadre training and fostering

Vietnam’s revolutionary cause has made great and historic achievements. However, the country is still facing many difficulties and challenges. Whether Vietnam can maintain stability and develop or not, it depends greatly on the size and quality of human resources. Additionally, key leaders and managers at all levels of the Party, the State and socio-political organizations play a crucial role. They must be trained and fostered, equipped with both heart and talent, passion and expertise, thinking ability and practical experience, so that they can fulfil significant and complex tasks in the era of increased industrialization and modernization, scientific and technological revolution, knowledge-based economy and globalization.

With a thorough grasp of Ho Chi Minh’s thoughts, cadre training and fostering has always drawn special attention from the Party and achieved many important results so far. The work has been increasingly stable and effective, which facilitates the construction of a transparent and strong Party as well as political system, promoting socio-economic development and national defence. The increased diversification of training and fostering types creates favorable conditions for participants and improves the quality of the work. The system of training establishments has been consolidated and developed with a higher number of staff trained and fostered in political theory, expertise and professionalism. The work of training and fostering and updating knowledge has received more attention and step by step associated with job titles, planning and use(20). The contents, programs and forms of training and fostering are gradually innovated with greater importance attached to fostering and updating knowledge based on job titles and positions, meeting actual requirements of the tasks(21). The quality of trainers has been raised in terms of academic standard, expertise, political theory and practical experience; the training facilities and their technical convenience are enhanced.

After the training and fostering, cadres (especially the key ones) at agencies, units and localities generally grasp basic theory, know how to apply it to solving practical problems, have steadfast political courage, dynamism and creativity; and effectively implement the Renewal lines, guidelines and policies of the Party and the State. Their knowledge and practical experience have been increasingly improved, gradually adapting to the new mechanism. They have also made important contributions to the achievements in socio-economic field, national defense and security.

Besides the aforementioned results, the cadre training and fostering has shown limitations and weaknesses to address. The work sees slow innovation, does not combine theory and practice closely, and not attach to planning and job titles(22). The expansion of training scale has not been followed by higher quality. The training and fostering contents and programs have been slowly renewed, supplemented, and updated with the occurrence of overlaps, not meeting the requirements of more practical activities, training in political ideology, ethics, leadership and management styles. Many cadres and civil servants have not really been self-conscious and proactive, or actively participated in training and fostering, or joined the effort on their own. Teaching and learning methods are slowly innovated. Training management, especially the management of learners’ self-study reveals weaknesses. The quality of the training staff and administrators sees limitations. The training and fostering work has not been carried out synchronously, and not attached importance to fostering skills in leading, managing, and organizing, especially handling practical circumstances in an effective way(23). Some party committees and local authorities have not paid proper attention to the work. Financial support and other benefits and are still below practical standards in the society and they do not match the innovation and increased quality in training and fostering. Many training establishments do not enjoy basic facilities and technical convenience.

3. Applying Ho Chi Minh’s thoughts to improving the quality in current cadre training and fostering

In order to continue improving the quality in cadre training and fostering, well implement Resolution No.29-NQ/TW dated November 4, 2014 of the 11th Central Party Committee on fundamental and comprehensive renovation in education and training, Resolution No.32-NQ/TW dated May 26, 2014 of the Politburo on continuing to innovate and improve the quality in training and fostering political theory for leaders and managers, especially Resolution No.26-NQ/TW dated May 19, 2018 of the 12th Central Party Committee on building cadres at all levels, especially the strategic level so that they are equipped with sufficient qualities, capabilities and prestige to fulfil their tasks, it is required to renovate and improve the quality in training and fostering cadres to meet the requirements of integration and development, which centres on the following fundamental solutions:

Firstly, thoroughly grasping Ho Chi Minh and the Party’s ideology on cadre training and fostering with the need to develop a suitable training and fostering plan for each job title and position. Enhancing the Party’s leadership in cadre training and fostering. Continuing to thoroughly and specifically grasp and effectively implement the central and governmental documents on cadre training and fostering, raise awareness of responsibility, promote the cadres’ studying and self-study. It is necessary to encourage cadres and party members enjoy learning, especially learning political theory, which is not only the cadres’ duty and responsibility but also their honor, beating laziness in learning the subject.

Organizations, agencies, units and localities need to regard the leadership in cadre training and fostering as a key political task in order to make deserved investments. The relationship between talents and virtues should receive special attention. Besides the synchronization and standardization of expertise, professionalism, knowledge and practical capabilities, it is highly recommended to attach great importance to training and fostering, and raise the cadres’ awareness of responsibility, promote their studying and self-study, associate training and fostering with cultivating their morals, political courage and stances.

Improving the effectiveness of state management of cadre training and fostering at training establishments together with raising the responsibilities of party committees and authorities at all levels in the implementation to ensure seriousness and quality. Strictly complying with regulations on the decentralization of training and fostering based on Decree No.101/2017/ND-CP dated September 1, 2017 of the Government on training and fostering civil servants. That some agencies and units are ineligible for cadre training and fostering but arbitrarily coordinate and organize training and fostering courses, causing low quality in training and fostering, and discipline violations must be stopped.

Secondly, raising organizations, agencies, units and localities’ awareness about the goals, requirements and importance of cadre training and fostering. Integrating cadre training and fostering into the basic, long-term, timely, and urgent national and local development strategies in the period of increased industrialization and modernization, and international integration. Associating the planning with training and fostering based on job title standards and promoting the rotation of leaders and managers in the political system to enable them practise themselves in different fields and locations.

Thirdly, continuing to carry out the planning and training of leaders and managers in order to equip managers at all levels, especially the strategic level, with sufficient qualities and capabilities, prestige to fulfil their duties, which must be regarded as a crucial and regular task of the whole political system.

Every year, party committees, authorities at all levels, and socio-political organizations actively check the expertise and political theory knowledge of cadres in their localities and units, develop training and fostering plan based on cadre planning and use. Courses in training and updating knowledge for leaders and managers at all levels, especially strategic level, should be opened regularly.

Strictly complying with rules and regulations in training and fostering. Directing to effectively implement the planning and management of cadre training and fostering.

Professional training must be based on the needs of performing tasks and the needs of developing human resources at agencies, units and localities with their standards meeting the requirements. Attaching cadre training and fostering to the planning and appointment, sending officials to overseas training courses to suit the requirements and tasks.

In political theory training, systemic nature and interconnectedness between levels should be ensured. An official who is doing a compulsory course in political theory should not be sent to a course in political theory at a higher level. Additionally, an official should not be sent to various courses at the same time. And any official who has not completed a compulsory course in political theory should not be approved, rotated, promoted, appointed, and re-appointed cadres.

Fourthly, improving the quality of training and fostering staff as well as lecturers at training institutions. Making good plans for the development of civil servants at training institutions, ensuring the reasonable quantity and structure; recruiting and attracting high-quality human resources. Providing further courses in training and fostering to raise awareness, equipping staff advising on training and fostering, leaders and managers at training institutions with working skills and methods. Building a team of lecturers to ensure sufficient quantity, quality, reasonable structure, basic training in expertise, theory, practical knowledge and management experience. Building a team of qualified, experienced and responsible presenters, part-time lecturers and visiting lecturers.

Regarding the lecturers, the increasing requirements of staff training and fostering and the problems posed in real life as well as in theoretical research, practical review prompt training institutions to scientifically combine training courses to improve professionalism and teaching skills with further researching and accumulating basic practical knowledge in order to supplement and update knowledge, increase the capability of analyzing and solving difficult and sensitive problems, and know how to elicit thinking, rightly orient learners’ awareness and action. The lecturers should also focus on training their own consciousness, political courage, stance, morals and style.

Fifthly, training institutions should continue to innovate training contents, programs and methods to suit each type of training and job title, and provide exact evaluation of the training results. Developing quality and practical training contents and programs; associating basic training with fostering to raise awareness, practice capability, leadership and management skills, fostering title-based knowledge; balancing theory and practice in training programs and documents, ensuring title standards and positions; continuously renovating teaching and learning methods towards an active and modern way.

Teaching and learning methods must be lively, attractive, practical and suitable for learners. These methods are designed to increase learners’ activeness, enhance two-way exchange between learners and lecturers, and encourage both learners and lecturers to enjoy their lecture. More training courses in professionalism and political theory should be opened, and so should training courses in field-based and region-based skills, prioritizing staff in particular regions. Updating knowledge for leaders, managers, officials and party members should be centred on.

Enhancing coordination and connection to diversify training and fostering forms. Actively increasing cooperation with training institutions to expand training forms, diversify training programs and contents, types of learners; providing target-based and demand-based training to supplement and develop human resources for the whole country and localities; enrolling right cadres for the training scale with the young obliged to undergo intensive training.

Sixthly, developing, amending and supplementing mechanisms and policies on training and fostering work; continuing to concretize the Party and the Government’s regulations on financial support and other benefits regarding cadre training and fostering in accordance with the socio-economic conditions in each locality and the leaders, managers, and staff’s studying needs. Investing to modernize facilities and equipment for training and fostering. Increasing investments in cadre training and fostering by attracting and diversifying legal funding sources. Strengthening domestic and international cooperation. Actively exploiting and building multifaceted cooperation between nationwide institutions and international bodies with a view to exchanging, learning, and absorbing experience, training and fostering methods, exploiting the assistance in forms of trainers, lecturers, financial and equipment support.

Through his life as a revolutionary, President Ho Chi Minh always cared for cadre training and fostering. His relevant theoretical points are very comprehensive with profound theoretical and practical values. The movement to study and follow Ho Chi Minh’s thoughts, morals and styles has been going in an active, increasingly deep, practical, and effective manner with a variety of creative forms in the whole Party, the whole people, the whole armed forces, at all levels and branches from the central to the grassroots. It serves as a key solution and a favorable environment for staff training and fostering in the new period, meeting the requirements of cadre work in the current context of accelerated industrialization and modernization, knowledge-based economy development, and international integration.


Received: November 25, 2021; Revised: December 20, 2021; Accepted for publication: February 22, 2022.



(1), (2), (3), (4), (9), (15), (17) Ho Chi Minh: Complete Works, vol.5, Truth National Political Publishing House, Hanoi, 2011, pp.68,313, 309, 309, 309, 312, 313.

(5), (6), (8), (10), (11), (12), (13), (14), (16), (18), (19) Ho Chi Minh: Complete Works, vol.6, ibid, pp.208, 360-361, 356-357, 359, 357, 358, 358, 359, 361, 356, 356.

(7) Ho Chi Minh: Complete Works, vol.11, ibid, 95.

(20), (22), (23) PVC: Documents of the 7th Session of the 12th Central Executive Committee, Office of the Central Executive Committee, Hanoi, 2018, pp.46, 48, 70.

(21) CPV: Central Committee’s Publicity and Education Commission: Research Papers on Documents of the 7th Session of the 12th Central Executive Committee, Truth National Political Publishing House, Hanoi, 2018, p.69.


Nghe An Political School

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