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Aspirations for the country’s development in the book by General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong

(PTOJ) - The book by General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong covers many theoretical and practical issues about the renovation policy, the development of the country in the fields of politics, economics, culture, society, foreign affairs, national defense and security. Through this book, General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong has identified the country's development goals, aspirations, directions and measures needed to realize the country's development aspirations.

Striving for the middle of the twenty-first century, our country becomes a socialist-oriented developed country - Photo: dangcongsan.vn

In the 464 pages of the book “Some theoretical and practical issues about socialism and the path to socialism in Vietnam”, there is a collection of 29 typical articles and speeches by General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong. With a language rich in images, simple expressions, easy to understand for all classes of people, distilled from the vivid practical life of the country, the book clearly shows and deepens the nature and core values of socialism and the aspiration to develop the country in the new era - the aspiration for a Vietnam following a “prosperous and happy” development.

1. Aspiration to develop the country

In the long history of the development of the Vietnamese nation from the time when Hung King laid the foundation for the land of Vietnam until today, the desire to build, protect and develop the country has always been a strong endogenous resource that has led to many glorious victories. Vietnam won in the wars of aggression, maintained its national independence, and created a brilliant Dai Viet civilization, not primarily by its military potential, nor by its material strength, but first and foremost with great rebellious strength stemming from the aspiration for national sovereignty.

During the Ho Chi Minh era, under the leadership of the Communist Party, the Vietnamese people broke the shackles of oppression and exploitation of imperialism and feudalism, built and defended the revolutionary State; defeated powerful invading forces, defended independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, unified the country, and developed the whole country along the path to socialism. These glorious feats were enabled by the invincible strength of patriotism and revolutionary heroism, originating from the fierce aspiration summarized by President Ho Chi Minh as the simple truth: “We would rather sacrifice everything than lose our country, then return to slavery”; “Nothing is more precious than independence and freedom”; “Vietnam is one, the Vietnamese people are one, rivers may dry up, mountains may erode, but that truth never changes.”

After the country was unified, the government carried out the construction of socialism on a national scale, with the aspiration to eradicate poverty and backwardness, the people unanimously trusted in the Party to carry out the cause of renovation. The desire for prosperity and happiness has transformed into the source of great strength for the country overcome many difficulties and challenges, turning our country from a poor and underdeveloped country into a developing, middle-income country; overcoming, successfully controling the Covid-19 pandemic, minimizing losses at the hands the pandemic, stabilizing socio-economic conditions, ensuring the lives of the people, restoring and maintaining growth, among many other achievements.

The nation’s aspirations, core values, goals and aspirations for national development were declared by General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong to be: resolutely and persistently building socialism with sustainable and good values, with the humanistic goal of helping the people: “a society in which development is truly for people, etc.; a society of compassion, solidarity, mutual assistance, towards progressive and humane values; sustainable development, in harmony with nature to ensure a healthy living environment for current and future generations; a political system in which real power belongs to the people, by the people, and serves the interests of the people”(1). The aspiration described by the General Secretary is to build a society of “rich people, strong country, democracy, justice, civilization; owned by the people; have a highly developed economy, based on modern production forces and appropriate progressive production relations; has an advanced culture deeply imbued with national identity; people have a prosperous, free and happy life, have conditions for comprehensive development; Ethnic groups in the Vietnamese community are equal, united, respect and help each other to develop; there is a socialist law-ruled state of the people, by the people, for the people led by the Communist Party; have friendly and cooperative relations with countries around the world”(2). That development goal was determined by the Party and General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong with specific targets: “By 2025: To be a developing country with modern industry, surpassing the low-middle income level; By 2030: To be a developing country with modern industry and high middle income. By 2045: Becoming a developed, high-income country”(3); “Striving for the middle of the twenty-first century, our country becomes a socialist-oriented developed country”(4).

This is not a simple or subjective aspiration, but rather it is determined on the basis of a thorough analysis of opportunities and advantages that can be grasped and promoted; at the same time, consciously considering and calculating the difficulties, challenges and obstacles that need to be resolutely handled, adapted and overcome. This is the aspiration formed and built on a scientific basis of the goal-oriented path, clearly foreseen steps, and is the succession and completion of the identified aspirations of the previous generations. This is an aspiration that is completely in line with the people’s wishes and aspirations - to build the country on the path towards socialism that President Ho Chi Minh, the Party and our people have chosen and for which they strive.

2. Realizing the development aspirations of the country

What is of the highest concern for General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong in the book is how and in what way to realize the aspiration to develop the country and successfully build socialism in Vietnam. This is a cross-cutting theme set forth by General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong through the Reports of the 12th Party Central Committee, the closing speech of the 13th National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam and speeches at the 1st Plenum of the 14th National Assembly, the first meeting of the Government for the term 2021-2026, the National Conference on performing the action plan of the Vietnam Fatherland Front to implement the Resolution of the 13th National Party Congress, the national Cadre conference thoroughly grasped and implemented the conclusions and regulations of the Party Central Committee on the Party building and rectification. The National Conference on Culture, the Conference on National Foreign Affairs, the Summary Conference of the Central Theoretical Council, the Vietnam Trade Union Congress, the Farmers’ Union Congress, the National Patriotic Emulation Congress, etc., and speaking at major national anniversaries. Thereby, General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong has clearly indicated the roles, functions, tasks and responsibilities of the various organizations, levels, branches and forces, etc., for realizing the country’s development aspirations.

Firstly, we shall be steadfast in the path chosen by our Party and people. General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong affirmed: “The guiding thought throughout the entire Party, people and army is to be consistent, to creatively apply and develop Marxism - Leninism and Ho Chi Minh’s thought; steadfast in the goal of national independence and socialism; steadfast on the Party’s renewal line; steadfast adherence to the principles of Party building; ensure the highest interests of the nation - on the basis of the basic principles of international laws, equality, cooperation and mutual beneficial to firmly build and protect the socialist Vietnamese Fatherland. This is a matter of principle, of vital significance to our national regime, a solid foundation of our Party, not allowing anyone to waver or change the stance”(5).

Secondly, we shall constantly build, renovate and promote the role of the political system. General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong pointed out that the close and rhythmic coordination, the participation of the whole political system, the unity and determination of the entire Party, people and army are very important to successfully implement the Resolution of the 13th National Party Congress. At the same time, it is necessary to have a new, methodical and scientific method and way of doing things, following the same spirit emphasized by the General Secretary: “The State guidelines shall be followed and supported by all agencies and people, a strong consensus shall always be reached among the superior and the subordinate levels, then everything shall be performed smoothly”.

As for the Party, in order to assume the leadership role, “Our Party shall continue to further improve its bravery and intelligence, to be truly “ethical, civilized”; we shall make more of an effort in the Party building and rectification, building our Party and political system to be more and more pure, stronger, on par with the level of task, capable to lead the construction and development of the country faster and more sustainably”(6). General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong emphasized, for cadres, “no matter what position they are in, they must always have a full sense of their responsibilities, perform “the right role, thoroughly understanding the lesson”, really have the qualities, and complete the assigned tasks well; get closely connected to the people, to be loved and respected by the people”(7). Along with that, in order to maintain and clean up the Party organization and the state apparatus, party cadres and members need to consider the anti-corruption fight to be a particularly important task of the Party and the political system.

For the National Assembly, “it is necessary to continue to strongly promote its role and position in creating a legal framework for the country’s activities, serving the tasks of socio-economic development, ensuring national defense, security, foreign affairs, etc.,; Continue to renovate, to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of supervision activities, etc., questioning activities, promoting democracy, increasing debate, in-depth analysis, clarifying achievements and advantages, as well as shortcomings, limitations, identify the causes, the lessons learned and propose appropriate and feasible solutions, etc.; Improve the quality of decisions on important national issues in the direction of more accuracy and practicality, etc., ; Promote foreign affairs, proactively and actively expedite international integration and cooperation”(8).

For the Government, it is necessary to “continue strongly renovating the organization and mode of operation, achieving many important results, making greater contributions to the renewal process, accelerating industrialization and modernization.”, etc., worthy of the position and role as the highest state administrative agency, exercising executive power, etc.; it is the agency that directly organizes, manages and effectively implements all guidelines and policies of the Communist Party of Vietnam, turning the Party’s guidelines and policies and the State’s laws into a vivid reality, bringing prosperity, freedom and happiness to the people, making them glorious for the nation and the humankind”(9).

For the Vietnam Fatherland Front and its member organizations, it is necessary to “be more dynamic, creative and innovative; more practical and effective, contributing to gathering more and more people from the great national unity bloc; strengthen the close-knit relationship between the People, the Party and the government, forming a great and invincible strength to make our Fatherland more and more prosperous, our People increasingly happier; Our country more and more developed and prosperous”(10).

Thirdly, we shall build, preserve, revive and develop the national culture. General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong affirmed: “Culture must be promoted on par with the economy, politics and society”, therefore, “we shall continue to build, preserve and develop an advanced Vietnamese culture deeply imbued with national identity, which is truly “the spiritual foundation”, “the driving force for development” ” and “lighting the way for the nation to advance”; promote the cultural values and human strength of Vietnam, arouse the aspiration to develop a prosperous and powerful country of Vietnam”. In particular, the General Secretary emphasized the construction and development of people “Building the Vietnamese people in the period of renovation, development and integration with appropriate standard values, associated with preserving and promoting Vietnamese family values, cultural values, and national - ethnic values; skillfully combining traditional values ​​with contemporary values: patriotism, solidarity, self-reliance, gratitude, honesty, responsibility, discipline, and creativity”(11).

Fourthly, it is necessary to pay attention to the external affairs of the Party, the State and the people. General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong determined that it is necessary to build and develop a modern Vietnamese foreign policy and diplomacy imbued with national identity, specifically: “We have built a very special and unique school of foreign affairs and diplomacy of the Ho Chi Minh era, deeply imbued with the national identity of “Vietnamese bamboos”, “firm roots, strong body, flexible branches” (“thin body, fragile leaves, why should it be a stronghold, a bastion!”), is imbued with the soul, character and mettle of the Vietnamese people. They are: Soft, clever, but very resilient, fierce; flexible, creative but very brave, steadfast, courageous in facing all challenges and difficulties for the sake of national independence, freedom and happiness of the people. Solidarity and compassion, but resolutely and persistently protecting the interests of the nation - country. Know how to be flexible; know the right time, know the context; know oneself, know others; know how to advance, know how to withdraw, “improvise at will”, “soft but firm”!”(12).

Fifthly, to create a driving force to promote the realization of the country’s development aspirations, it is necessary to promote the good implementation of the patriotic emulation movement, as General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong requested: “the patriotic emulation movement in the coming time should aim to encourage ministries, departments, branches, localities and people nationwide to overcome all difficulties and challenges, to make good use of opportunities and achievements of the Industrial Revolution 4.0 and the trends of shifting investment, trade, digital transformation, the development of new business models, the change in global production, consumption and communication methods, etc., to help the country continue to develop more and more strongly”(13). The General Secretary emphasized: “Continue to comprehensively renovate, promote the creative spirit in organizing the emulation movement so that it is very useful and practical, avoiding the formal, boring or tedious modes. The objects of emulation need to be various; ensure the harmony of interests, etc. Emulation movements need to have specific and clear content and criteria for easy implementation, inspection and supervision; mobilize the mass participation and active response from the people”(14).

Sixthly, attention should be paid to promoting the strength of actors and forces in society. This is a direct determinant for realizing the country’s development aspirations.

For the working class, the General Secretary asked to build a strong working class and a strong trade union organization, specifically: “Building a strong working class is the responsibility of the whole political system, the whole society, and the individual efforts of each worker, etc.; in which, the leadership of the Party and the management of the State play a decisive role, the trade union plays an important role directly in taking care of the construction of the working class. The State is interested in amending and supplementing policies and laws on salary regime, social insurance, health insurance, unemployment insurance, etc., to ensure the rights, benefits and to improve the living standards of laborers. Building a strong working class shall be associated with building an ideologically, organizationally and ethically strong and clean Party, and building trade unions, the Ho Chi Minh Communist Youth Union in into strong forces in the working class”(15).

For the peasant class, General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong asked the related agencies and bodies to build a constantly growing Vietnamese peasant class, which is the focus of the process of agricultural development and new rural construction: “the movement of farmers and associations shall be constantly renovated, striving to rise up, improve organizational quality, operational methods and efficiency, strongly promote the role and position of the peasantry, to meet the increasing demands of the revolutionary cause in the new period”(16).

Regarding the youth, General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong requested to: “further promote the pioneering, impulsive and creative role of the youth as a large, young and potential social force. That requires the Ho Chi Minh Communist Youth Union to further renovate, further improve the quality, content and mode of operation, improve the effectiveness of the revolutionary action movement, expand the United Front and rally the Youth”(17); “Let’s always move forward in studying, working, producing, struggling, contributing to building our homeland of Vietnam making it become more and more dignified, bigger and a more beautiful country”(18).

Regarding the military force, General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong requested to: “build a strong and comprehensive military force, to firmly defend the Fatherland from early and far, contributing more to the cause of firmly building and defending our beloved socialist Vietnamese Fatherland, worthy of the trust and love of our Party, State and People”(19).

Regarding the police force, by General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong requested to: “build a really clean and strong police force, worthy of being a loyal force of our Party, State and people: “Each police officer and soldier must uphold the will to struggle, regularly self-examine, self-correct, self-cultivate and train according to the requirements of both qualifications and qualities, etc. This must be considered as a regular task, becoming subconscious in our hearts and minds and practical actions in our daily work and battles”(20).

The book “Some theoretical and practical issues on socialism and the path to socialism in Vietnam” by General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong shows the thorough thought, consistency, firmness, and creative development, perfecting theoretical thinking, awareness of socialism and the path to socialism in Vietnam. In particular, the book also shows specific and important aspects and views for the aspiration to develop a “prosperous and happy” country. The book has a significant importance and meaning, for the work of theoretical research, practical summaries, especially theoretical summaries about the renovation path, the lessons learned, the legal issues from the reality of national construction and development in the process of implementing the Party’s renovation policy. At the same time, it is the basis for cadres, Party members and the people to understand, grasp, master consistently and successfully organize implementing the aspiration to develop the “prosperous, happy, mighty, prosperous” country of Vietnam as the aspiration of the great President Ho Chi Minh and our whole nation.


Received: April 3, 2022; Revised: April 6, 2022; Approved for publication: July 15, 2022.



(1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8), (9), (10), (11), (12), (13), (14), (15), (16), (17), (18), (19), (20) Nguyen Phu Trong: Some theoretical and practical issues about socialism and the path to socialism in Vietnam, Truth National Political Publishing House, Hanoi, 2022, p.9, 24, 53, 53, 51, 375, 379, 80, 98, 118, 170, 184, 420-421, 421-422, 293-294, 300, 311, 314, 449, 460.


1. Vu Minh Khuong: Vietnam 2045: vision, aspiration and historical mission, Vietnam Electronic Journal of Science and Technology, https://vjol.info.vn/index.php/khcn/article/view/47943, accessed on 17-01-2020.

2. CPV: Documents of the 13th National Congress of Deputies, vol.I, II, Truth National Political Publishing House, Hanoi, 2021.


Academy of Politics Region III

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